Pitfalls and Artefacts
Edition 12/12 of 2016/2017 PET/CT Webinar Series
Created in cooperation with Philips

Brief summary of contents
Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is increasingly being used. Not all activity seen on scans is pathological. This webinar will briefly discuss artefacts and pitfalls in interpretation. Technical artefacts and pitfalls will be described, as well as tracer dependent artefacts and pitfalls with emphasis on FDG. These will be illustrated by case examples.

Content: Presentation and MCQ test (10 questions)

Length: 00:50:11 min



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PET/CT Peptide imaging
Edition 11/12 of 2016/2017 PET/CT Webinar Series

Created in cooperation with Philips

Brief summary of contents
Due to the overexpression of different peptide receptors in several malignant tissues, some radiolabelled peptides and proteins are currently developed as PET tracers in oncology. The aim of this presentation is to summarize the current role of PET/CT peptide imaging, with special emphasis on radiolabelled somatostatin analogues and prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) ligands.
After a short introduction on peptide imaging, the role of somatostatin receptor PET/CT in oncology is illustrated including some clinical cases underlining the relevant diagnostic and theranostic role of somatostatin receptor PET/CT in neuroendocrine tumours.
The emerging role of PSMA ligand PET/CT in prostate cancer patients is reported.
Furthermore, other radiolabelled peptides for PET imaging currently under investigation in clinical trials are discussed.

Content: Presentation and MCQ test (12 questions)
Length: 00:35:36 min



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Dynamic PET/CT for clinical research
Edition 10/12 of 2016/2017 PET/CT Webinar Series
Created in cooperation with Philips

Brief summary of contents
Compared with Gamma camera based dynamic study, the advantages of dynamic PET/CT are 1) three dimensional data acquisition, 2) correction for attenuation, 3) use of physiological tracers, 4) fusion with CT, and 5) quantitative parameters such as blood flow.
In the former half, current application of dynamic PET/CT (data acquisition at different time points) in FDG oncology is presented followed by C-11 glucose absorption, pancreatic exocrine function with C-11 methionine, mucociliary clearance in pulmonary epithelium, and pharmacokinetic studies of drugs.
In the latter half, C-11 acetate clearance from myocardium as an index of myocardial oxygen metabolism is first presented as a simple example of dynamic data acquisition and physiological parameter analysis. Blood flow measurement by means of dynamic PET/CT with Oxygen-15 labelled water is then presented in patients with stroke and lung cancer.

Content: Presentation and MCQ test (10 questions)
Length: 00:34:51 min

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Drug Development and new Therapies in NM
Edition 9/12 of 2016/2017 PET/CT Webinar Series

Created in cooperation with Philips

Brief summary of contents
Nuclear Medicine is not imaging only. Therapy with radionuclides is possible and effective and this Webinar aims at showing how novel radioactive therapy agents are developed from the discovery of lead compound to clinical trials. To limit its length, the scope of the webinar has been voluntarily limited to anti-cancer radionuclide treatments administered systemically. The webinar emphasizes the scientific and multidisciplinary aspects of the development of new therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals and summarizes the regulatory context. Somatostatin analogues, radiolabelled antibodies, radium-223 and CHXR4 and PSMA ligands are discussed as illustrations of the development process.

Content: Presentation and MCQ test (5 questions)
Length: 00:43:20 min



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PET/CT in Cardiology: state of the art in future prospects

Edition 8/12 of 2016/2017 PET/CT Webinar Series
Created in cooperation with Philips

Brief summary of contents
This webinar describes state of the art in future prospects of PET/CT in cardiology. Cardiac PET/CT has many advantages over SPECT or SPECT/CT, however, it is underutilized in many countries. I introduce the current and emerging radiotracers, first. Then I move to current and emerging clinical applications. I compare the coronary flow reserve with fractional flow reserve. I discuss the future prospective of hybrid imaging for the 3-dimensional evaluation of coronary physiology. Plaque imaging is a hot topic. I introduce a recent paper of using sodium fluoride to image vulnerable plaque is very exciting. Finally, I introduce the use of FDG PET/CT to detect and monitor cardiac sarcoidosis.

Content: Presentation and MCQ test (12 questions)
Length: 00:26:36 min



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Radiation therapy planning using PET/CT

Edition 7/12 of 2016/2017 PET/CT Webinar Series
Created in cooperation with Philips

Brief summary of contents

Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is increasingly being used in radiation therapy planning (RT planning), allowing more accurate volume definitions than using anatomical imaging alone. This webinar will briefly discuss the use of PET/CT in RT planning in various types of malignancies using different PET tracers. A few case examples will further illustrate the increasing impact of PET/CT using different radiopharmaceuticals on RT planning and disease management.

Content: Presentation and MCQ test (10 questions)
Length: 00:38:00 min



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Optimisation of image acquisition and re-construction with PET/CT

Edition 6/12 of 2016/2017 PET/CT Webinar Series
Created in cooperation with Philips

Brief summary of contents

The image quality and quantitative performance of PET/CT studies is affected by several factors. These factors relate to technical, physics related and biological uncertainties. In order to mitigate these uncertainties, optimization and harmonisation of imaging procedures and PET/CT system performance is needed. In particular, for multicentre studies it is essential to harmonise PET/CT examinations to obtain comparable quantitative results across all imaging sites and to translate these findings. To this end the EANM published procedural guidelines for (multicentre) FDG PET/CT studies and launched the EARL accreditation program to harmonise PET/CT system performance.


Content: Presentation and MCQ test (12 questions)
Length: 00:51:00 min



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PET/CT in Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases

Edition 5/12 of 2016/2017 PET/CT Webinar Series
Created in cooperation with Philips

Brief summary of contents
After a short introduction on the difference between infection and inflammation and the different cell types involved, the role and current status of 18F-FDG-PET is discussed in various infectious and inflammatory diseases:  fever of unknown origin, vasculitis, sarcoidosis, musculoskeletal infections, vascular graft infections, endocarditis and fungal infections. For each clinical scenario clinical cases are demonstrated. Then, an overview is provided of the existing EANM/SNM guidelines on the use of 18F-FDG in inflammation and infection. Finally, some future perspectives and their potential role in the future are discussed: specific tracers, personalized medicine and PET-MRI. After the teaching points two more clinical cases are shown.


Content: Presentation and MCQ test (15 questions)
Length: 01:00:37 min



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The role of PET/CT in work up of thyroid malignancy

Edition 4/12 of 2016/2017 PET/CT Webinar Series
Created in cooperation with Philips

Brief summary of contents

Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with different tracers have been increasingly used in patients with thyroid tumours. Our aim is to summarize literature data and clinical experiences about the usefulness of PET/CT imaging in this setting. The role of Fluorine-18-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET and PET/CT in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is well established, particularly in patients presenting with elevated serum thyroglobulin levels and negative radioiodine whole-body scan. Iodine-124 PET/CT may serve to obtain lesional dosimetry for planning of treatment with Iodine-131. FDG-PET/CTscans are useful in the post-thyroidectomy staging of highrisk patients with less differentiated histological subtypes. PET/CT with different tracers seem to be useful methods in localizing the source of elevated calcitonin levels in patients with recurrent medullary thyroid carcinoma. Incorporation of FDG-PET or PET/CT into the initial workup of patients with indeterminate thyroid nodules at fine needle aspiration biopsy proved to bu useful and cost/effective in ruling-out inappropriate diagnostic lobectomies.


Content: Presentation and MCQ test (10 questions)
Length: 38:16 min



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Brain tumor imaging

Edition 3/12 of 2016/2017 PET/CT Webinar Series
Created in cooperation with Philips

Brief summary of contents
After a short introduction, the diagnostic impact of PET and SPECT in brain tumor diagnosis is reviewed in comparison with conventional MRI. This concerns the improved delineation of brain tumors for therapy planning and biopsy guidance, information on grading and prognosis, differentiation of recurrent tumor from unspecific post therapeutic changes and therapy monitoring. For each aspect clinical cases are demonstrated. Finally, the webinar will end with a summary of the main teaching points.


Content: Presentation and MCQ test (10 questions)
Length: 54:30 min



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Quality management of PET/CT systems – international standards
Edition 2/12 of 2016/2017 PET/CT Webinar Series
Created in cooperation with Philips

Brief summary of contents

Various factors affect the quality and quantitative performance of PET/CT studies. In order to mitigate these uncertainties, rigorous standardisation and harmonisation of imaging procedures and PET/CT system performance is needed. In particular, for multicentre studies it is essential to harmonise PET/CT examinations to obtain comparable quantitative results across all imaging sites and to translate these findings. In this webinar, requirements for PET/CT system performance in order to use it as an instrument for quantitative imaging will be addressed. The webinar will especially focus on various international efforts to standardise and harmonise PET/CT examinations and system performance. Finally, the approach followed by EARL and its achievement so far will be discussed in more detail.

Content: Presentation and MCQ test (10 questions)
Length: 50:17 min



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Use of Gallium-68 for production of radiotracers
Edition 1/12 of 2016/2017 PET/CT Webinar Series
Created in cooperation with Philips

Learning objectives:

On completion of the Webinar, the participant should be able to:
-  State the physicochemical properties of Gallium
- Describe the production of Gallium-68 generators
- Name common Gallium-68 radiopharmaceuticals
- Briefly describe the use of Gallium-68 in radiolabelling
- State the precautions needed in handling Gallium-68
- List quality assurance and quality control approaches for Gallium-68 radiopharmaceuticals


Content: Presentation and MCQ test (11 questions)
Length: 31:38 min



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